In 1453, Mehmed the Conqueror was nearing the end of his conquest to bring an end to the Eastern Roman Empire. After a 57 day siege, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman sultan, signalling the end of the kingdom. As soon as the triumph was complete, Mehmed settled there and moved the Ottoman capital from Adrianople to the newly conquered city.
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I read books about successful people and make animated book summary videos about them.
A nation state can either be a Republic or a Principality and either old or new. An old hereditary state that has been passed down the generations is easy to rule, but taking control and then holding onto a new state is difficult. The difficulty is reduced if you personally supervise it. An old hereditary state such as a monarchy can be taken by destroying the entire royal family. This is what Alexander the Great did to conquer and hold onto the Persian empire of Darius III.
Sun Tzu said: In war, the general receives his commands from the sovereign. Subutai, was Genghis Khan’s most astute and brilliant general. His great discipline and intelligence when carrying out his ruler’s orders allowed him to execute them successfully and help the Mongols create one of the largest empires in history.